Ivan Illich on the Generation of Needs in an Economy of Scarcity

Toward a History of Needs (1978)
An analysis of the generation of needs as the foundation of modern economy as management of scarcity.
Gender (1982) The book introduces the distinction between gender and sex and claims the repression of gender on behalf of sex in modernity. Gender denotes the polarity of feminine and masculine shaping what we call a person. Sex is the opposite: the differentiation of the feminine and masculine out of a neutral entity. Sex is a modern construct which has the purpose to make an economy of scarcity possible. Gender must be rediscovered as the realm of convivial society.
The Sad Loss of Gender (1990)
Needs (1990)

"Welfare is ... a ... mediation of scarce resources"

"Insurance is ... one of the ultimate forms of political control"

"Needs ... have nothing to do with ... necessities ..."
In the Mirror of the Past (1992) 
- Toward an Economy of Waste
Flüssen nördlich der Zukunft (2006)
- Die Frohe Botschaft
The Gospel links "virtue" to the relationship to the other. The institutionalisation of this relationship (4th century) leads to an economy of needs.

The Rise of Homo Economicus
: Ivan Illich with David Cayley (3.27 minutes recording).


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